Direction (Q. 1-10): Read each sentence to find out whether there is any grammatical error in it. The error, if any, will be in one part of the sentence. The number of that part is the answer. If there is no error, the answer is 4), ie 'No error'. (Ignore the errors of punctuation, if any.)
Q. 1) By virtue of the provisions of the by-laws /2) he has to take on as /3) chairman of the committee /4) with effect from the first of the next month.