Direction (Q. 2 - 7) : In each question below, there are three statements followed by four conclusions numbered I, II, III and IV. You have to take the given statements to be true even if they seem to be at variance with commonly known facts and then decide which of the given conclusions logically follow(s) from the given statements.
Statements: a. Some books are not pens.
b. All books are copies.
c. No copies are slates.
Conclusions: I. Those books which are not pens, are not slates.
II. Some books which are copies are not slates.
III. Some pens are not books.
IV. Some books are pens.
From statement (b) [A-type] + statement (c) [E-type], we get No Books are slates. Conclusions I and II are subsets of the result obtained above. Hence, I and II follow. Statement (a) [O-type] can't be converted. Hence, III does not follow. But conclusions III and conversion of conclusion IV make a complementary pair. Hence either III or IV follows.
Statements: a. All cubes are cuboids.
b. Some cuboids are not rectangles.
c. All cuboids are squares.
Conclusions: I. Some cubes are not rectangles.
II. Some squares are not rectangles.
III. All cuboids are cubes.
IV. Some cuboids are not cubes.
Statement (a) [A-type] + statement (b) [O-type] gives no conclusion. Hence I does not follow. From statements (b) and (c) we get conclusion II. Conclusions III and IV make an A-O type complementary pair. Hence, either III or IV also follows.
Statements: a. All telephones are cellulars.
b. All microphones are cellulars.
c. Some telephones are not mobile phones.
Conclusions: I. Some microphones are not mobile phones.
II. Some cellulars are not mobile phones.
III. Some microphones are mobile phones.
IV. Some cellulars are mobile phones.
A. Only either I or III and either II or IV follow
From statements (a) and (c) we get conclusion II but the statements does not imply conclusion. IV Hence, II follows whereas IV does not follow. Again. I and III make an I-O type complementary pair. Hence, either I or III also follows.
Statements: a. No clerks are officers.
b. All officers are males.
c. Some males are not females.
Conclusions: I. Some males are not clerks.
II. Some females are not clerks.
III. Some officers are not clerks.
IV. Some males are not officers.
statement (a) [E-type] + statement (b) [A-type] gives conclusion I [Because, E + A = O*] Conversion of statement (a) gives conclusions III. Hence, III also follows. statements (b) gives the information some males are officers But we can not infer conclusion IV. Similarly, we can't infer conclusion II.
Statement: a. All erasers are dusters.
b. No dusters are chalks.
c. No chalks are books.
Conclusions: I. No chalks are erasers.
II. No books are erasers.
III. Some dusters are not erasers.
IV. Some dusters are not chalks.
Direction (Q. 8 - 10) : Study the following information carefully and answer the given questions following it.
(i) Eleven students A, B, C, D, E, F, G, H, I, J and K are sitting in the first row of a class facing the teacher.
(ii) D, who is on the immediate left of F, is second to the right of C.
(iii) A is second to the right of E, who is at one of the ends.
(iv) J is the immediate neighbour of A and B and third to the left of G
(v) H is on the immediate left ofD and third to the right of I.